Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) are glycoproteins expressed on the thrombocyte membrane. Antibodies against the Human Platelet Antigens can cause immune reactions in the recipient's blood leading to the lysis of the transfused thrombocytes. In these cases the patient has to be provided with platelet concentrates without the antigen structure which is recognized by the anitbody.
HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5, HPA-6, HPA-9, and HPA-15 each exist in two variant antigens structures known as "a" and "b". These biallelic forms are caused by SNPs, which result in single amino acid changes between the two different gene products.
Platelet antibodies can cause among others autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP), neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), post transfusions purpura (PTP), and passive alloimmune thrombocytopenia.
After transfusions of platelet concentrates, in case of mismatch constellations between donor andvpatient the recipient of the blood unit may produce antibodies. This activation against foreign platelet antigens would precent an increase in the number of platelets in subsequent transfusions.
By detecting the genotype of the patients the specificity of the antibodies that are present can be predicted. Furthermore genotyping of patiens and platelet donors is an important requirement for compatible platelet transfusion.
With two different kit designs, different HPA alleles, depending on your requirements profile, can be detected:
HPA-Ready Gene enables the detection of the alleles HPA-1a/b, HPA-2a/b, HPA-3a/b, HPA-4a/b, HPA-5a/b, and HPA-15a/b. The HPA-Ready Gene plus kit is an extension of the standard HPA-Ready Gene kit with additional 12 reactions detecting the HPA-6a/b, HPA-8a/b, HPA-9a/b, HPA-11a/b, HPA-21a/b, and HPA-27a/b alleles besides HPA-1a/b, HPA-2a/b, HPA-3a/b, HPA-4a/b, HPA-5a/b, and HPA-15a/b.
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is mostly triggered by anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Genotyping of the mother with regard to HPA-1 makes it possible to predict possible neonatal alloimmune thrombobytopenia.
With HPA-1 a/b Ready Gene you have the possibility of typing pregnant women specifically for their genotype. With the flexible format you can perform one screeing assay but also an individual test.
Both mixes are aliquoted in different clolored 8-well PCR stripes so that individual or several HPA-1 a/b tests can be performed in parallel.
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